Well Fed State

After we consume and digest an evening meal, glucose and amino acids are transported from the intestine to the blood. The dietary lipids are packaged into chylomicrons and transported to the blood by the lymphatic system. This fed condition leads to the secretion of insulin, which is one of the two most important regulators of fuel metabolism.

Insulin initiates protein kinase cascades—it stimulates glycogen synthesis in both muscle and the liver and suppresses gluconeogenesis by the liver. Insulin also accelerates glycolysis in the liver, which in turn increases the synthesis of fatty acids. The high insulin level in the fed state also promotes the entry of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue.

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