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Neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system

AV node

A part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart. It electrically connects the atria and ventricles.

Cardiac output

The volume of blood pumped by the heart each minute. It is a product of heart rate and stroke volume


A sudden change in membrane potential – usually from a (relatively) negative to positive internal charge

Heart rate

The number of heart beats in a minute


A change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.

Medulla oblongata

One of the brain structures that connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord, and is responsible for several functions of the autonomous nervous system

Membrane potential

The difference in electric potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell


Neurotransmitter that is released predominantly from the ends of sympathetic nerve fibres to increase the rate and force of contraction of the heart

Sinus node

The heart's natural pacemaker. It consists of a cluster of cells that are situated in the upper part of the wall of the right atrium (the right upper chamber of the heart). The electrical impulses are generated there.


The narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels

Venous return

The flow of blood back to the heart


Further Details on Neural regulation of Cardiac function:

British Heart Foundation

The BHF is a UK charity dedicated to raising public awareness of heart disease and what they can do to avoid it, and to carrying out research on cardiac conditions. There's a section aimed at healthcare professionals which has a wealth of resources and publications.

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Tortora, G. R., Derrickson B. H.

This book provides a comprehensive content on physiology and anatomy of human body.

Learning outcomes

By completing this resource you will be able to:

To describe the Neural regulation of Cardiac function.

This resource was developed by:

Content Developers: Jason Loo, Renukha Sellappans.

Developers:Nurhannah Mansor, Balqis Zulkifli, Enna Ayub, Nurhanim Hassan

Programmer: Nik Marisa Binti Nik Mohamad Hanif.

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